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INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) – ELECTRICITY GENERATION


Solar Energy comes to us in various forms, it has a great spectrum, encompassing, Light, Thermal Electromagnetic waves. Out of this great spectrum, we are concerned with the visible light, which gets converted into electricity. Solar-powered photovoltaic (PV) panels convert the sun's rays into electricity by exciting electrons in silicon cells using the photons of light from the sun. This electricity can then be used to supply renewable energy to your home or business.

Solar panels (also called "solar modules”) produce Direct Current (DC), which goes through a power inverter to become Alternating Current (AC}, electricity, that we can use in the home or office, like the one supplied by a utility power company. 


There are two types of Solar Systems: Grid Connected and standalone.


Grid-connected systems, as the name suggests are used where a reliable Grid supply is available for homes, public facilities such as schools and hospitals, and commercial facilities such as offices and shopping centers. Electricity generated during the daytime can be used right away, and in the night when no Solar is available, the supply is connected to the Grid System till the next morning.


Stand-alone systems are used in a variety of applications, including emergency power supply, and remote areas where traditional power infrastructure is unavailable. During the day solar also charges the storage batteries for the night time use. 


Process: 

Electricity from Solar is generated by employing large number of equipment in a sequence. Every system is site specific. For example, a rooftop, system has to satisfy the following conditions. 1. A shadow free roof, 2. Should be south facing, 3. load bearing strong roof to take load of panels and mounting structure

Site Analysis:

Before designing a system, a site inspection is very essential to understand, the location, the type of roof, access to the roof, place for installing switchgear and inverter. 

The system is designed taking into consideration all parameters present on the particular site and then the equipment is selected accordingly. 

                     


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The main components of the system, either, Grid Connected or Standalone are given below: 

1.Solar Panels or Modules 

2.Mounting Structure to mount the panels 

3.Inverter to convert Direct Current (DC) produced by the panels into Alternating 

Current (AC) needed for running household appliances. 

4.DC & AC switchgears 

5.Combiner boxes 

6.DC & AC cables 

7.Generation meters 

8.Lightning Arrestors and Earthing 

9.Batteries for standalone systems. 


There are great many manufacturers and importers in India dealing with all aspects of Solar component, equipment and systems. Our job is to provide complete Solar solution to our customers i.e. design system based on the site and customer's requirement. Order equipment required for the system, carryout installation and commissioning on the site, and hand over the system. 

For Grid Connected systems, an application has to submitted to the electricity department for permission to connect into their transformer. This system works on the basis of net metering which means that after consuming the required power, surplus electricity is transferred to the grid through the meter and meter moves forward and reverse direction to show the net consumption on the basis of which the owner receives the bill. 


Targets: 


Government of India has an ambitious target of 100 Giga Watts (100,000,000,000 Watts) by 2022. Out of this target, Grid connected rooftop alone, has an allocation of 40 GW. As of now India has been able to achieve a total of 30 GW in all segments.

As a Solar EPC company, we are committed to achieve this target. Systems also are covered under warrantee. When properly looked after these systems would provide service for 25 years and more. 


Why Solar 

Global warming, Green and Clean Energy, social responsibility, Self-sufficiency, many reasons to go for solar. The most attractive reason is cheap and reliable electricity generated at our own rooftop. The rate at which we buy or pay for electricity for our home use is charged between Rs.5.00 - Rs. 7.00 per unit depending on the consumption. The Electricity Department continue revising electricity charges practically every year and would continue to do so year after year. Solar on the contrary costs about Rs. 2.50/unit and continues to remains so till it becomes Rs.0.00 after 5 – 7 years. The cost of the system is recovered in 5 – 7 years and solar, if kept properly, would give service for 25 years and more.



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Advantage Solar 

Solar Power, simply put is to convert Sun's Light in to electricity. No fossil fuels are required to generate solar power. It is clean, does not create any environmental degradation, a steady, and inexhaustible source of energy to provide electricity. Except the initial cost, it is almost free and provide service for 25 years and more.

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) system starting from 1 KW, comprising equipment as mentioned above costs Rs.54000/- per kw approximately, (Govt. declared bench mark price, 2019-20). A 1 KW system would produce on an average 120 units of electricity per month, valued at Rs.720/- per month on an average rate of Rs. 6.00/- unit cost, earning or offsetting the owner's electricity bill by Rs.8640/ per annum. At this. rate, the system would pay for itself in about five – seven years and continue giving service for a period of 25 years plus. 

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